The underscore was originally used as assignment so a name such as The_Data would actually assign the value of Data to the variable The. The underscore is being phased out and the equals sign is being phased in.
Prior to version 1.5.0 this function was called piechart
The tide is turning on the usage of piecharts and they are no longer used much by statisticians. They are still frequently found in the media. An interesting editorial comment is made in the help page for piechart. Try ?pie to see.
Such data is available from
The data sets for these notes are available from the CSI math department and must be installed prior to this.
such data is available from
Of course, this data is made up by a non-smoker so there may be some bias.
This data came from ``Using R for Data Analysis and Graphics'' by John Maindonald. Further discussions of this data, of a more substantial nature, may be found on several web sites.
A thorough explanation of the syntax and its usage is found in the manual ``An Introduction to R'' which accompanies the R software, and the contributed document ``Using R for Data Analysis and Graphics'' by Maindonald. See the appendix for more information on these.
Technically R is using a correction to the above discussion.
from the dataset
This example assumes the fill ups were all roughly the same amount of gas. Otherwise, their could be errors as the data is averaged.
Of course, the true distribution is for all 26 letters. This is simplified down to look just at these 5 letters.
This data is simulated, however, the following article suggests a maximum rate of 207 - 0.7(age): ``Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited'' Hirofumi Tanaka, Kevin D. Monahan, Douglas R. Seals Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 37:1:153-156.
This example is taken from example 10.1.1 in the excellent book ``The Statistical Sleuth'', Ramsay and Schafer.
Which is based on one appearing in ``The Statistical Sleuth'' by Ramsey and Schafer