Multivariate Data   ## 5  Multivariate Data

Getting comfortable with viewing and manipulating multivariate data forces you to be organized about your data. R uses data frames to help organize big data sets and you should learn how to as well.

### 5.1  Storing multivariate data in data frames

Often in statistics, data is presented in a tabular format similar to a spreadsheet. The columns are for different variables, and each row is a different measurement or variable for the same person or thing. For example, the dataset home which accompanies these notes contains two columns, the 1970 assessed value of a home and the year 2000 assessed value for the same home.

R uses data frames to store these variables together and R has many shortcuts for using data stored this way.

If you are using a dataset which is built-in to R or comes from a spreadsheet or other data source, then chances are the data is available already as a data frame. To learn about importing outside data into R look at the Entering Data into R'' appendix and the document R Data Import/Export which accompanies the R software.

You can make your own data frames of course and may need to. To make data into a data frame you first need a data set that is an appropriate candidate: it will fit into a rectangular array. If so, then the data.frame command will do the work for you. As an example, suppose 4 people are asked three questions: their weight, height and gender and the data is entered into R as separate variables as follows:

> weight = c(150, 135, 210, 140)
> height = c(65, 61, 70, 65)
> gender = c("Fe","Fe","M","Fe")
> study = data.frame(weight,height,gender) # make the data frame
> study
weight height gender
1    150     65     Fe
2    135     61     Fe
3    210     70      M
4    140     65     Fe

Notice, the columns inherit the variable names. Different names are possible if desired. Try

> study = data.frame(w=weight,h=height,g=gender)

for example to shorten them.

You can give the rows names as well. Suppose the subjects were Mary, Alice, Bob and Judy, then the row.names command will either list the row names or set them. Here is how to set them

> row.names(study)<-c("Mary","Alice","Bob","Judy")

The names command will give the column names and you can also use this to adjust them.

### 5.2  Accessing data in data frames

The study data frame has three variables. As before, these can be accessed individually after attaching the data frame to your R session with the attach command:

> study
weight height gender
1    150     65     Fe
2    135     61     Fe
3    210     70      M
4    140     65     Fe
> rm(weight)                    # clean out an old copy
> weight
> attach(study)
> weight
 150 135 210 140

However, attaching and detaching the data frame can be a chore if you want to access the data only once. Besides, if you attach the data frame, you can't readily make changes to the original data frame.

To access the data it helps to know that data frames can be thought of as lists or as arrays and accessed accordingly.
To access as an array
An array is a way of storing data so that it can be accessed with a row and column. Like a spreadsheet, only technically the entries must all be of the same type and one can have more than rows and columns.

Data frames are arrays as they have columns which are the variables and rows which are for the experimental unit. Thus we can access the data by specifying a row and a column. To access an array we use single brackets ([row,column]). In general there is a row and column we can access. By letting one be blank, we get the entire row or column. As an example these will get the weight variable

> study[,'weight']              # all rows, just the weight column
 150 135 210 140
> study[,1]                     # all rows, just the first column

Array access allows us much more flexibility though. We can get both the weight and height by taking the first and second columns at once

> study[,1:2]
weight height
Mary     150     65
Alice    135     61
Bob      210     70
Judy     140     65

Or, we can get all of Mary's info by looking just at her row or just her weight if desired

> study['Mary',]
weight height gender
Mary    150     65     Fe
> study['Mary','weight']
 150

To access as a list
A list is a more general storage concept than a data frame. A list is a set of objects, each of which can be any other object. A data frame is a list, where the objects are the columns as vectors.

To access a list, one uses either a dollar sign, $, or double brackets and a number or name. So for our study variable we can access the weight (the first column) as a list all of these ways  > study$weight                  # using $ 150 135 210 140 > study[['weight']] # using the name. > study[['w']] # unambiguous shortcuts are okay > study[] # by position  These two can be combined as in this example. To get just the females information. These are the rows where gender is 'Fe' so we can do this  > study[study$gender == 'Fe', ]  # use \$ to access gender via a list
weight height gender
Mary     150     65     Fe
Alice    135     61     Fe
Judy     140     65     Fe


### 5.3  Manipulating data frames: stack and unstack

In some instances, there are two different ways to store data. The data set PlantGrowth looks like

> data(PlantGrowth)
> PlantGrowth
weight group
1    4.17  ctrl
2    5.58  ctrl
3    5.18  ctrl
4    6.11  ctrl
...

There are 3 groups a control and two treatments. For each group, weights are recorded. The data is generated this way, by recording a weight and group for each plant. However, you may want to plot boxplots for the data broken down by their group. How to do this?

A brute force way is do as follows for each value of group

> attach(PlantGrowth)
> weight.ctrl = weight[group == "ctrl"]

This quickly grows tiresome. The unstack function will do this all at once for us. If the data is structured correctly, it will create a data frame with variables corresponding to the levels of the factor.

> unstack(PlantGrowth)
ctrl trt1 trt2
1  4.17 4.81 6.31
2  5.58 4.17 5.12
3  5.18 4.41 5.54
4  6.11 3.59 5.50
...

Thus, to do a boxplot of the three groups, one could use this command

> boxplot(unstack(PlantGrowth))


### 5.4  Using R's model formula notation

The model formula notation that R uses allows this to be done in a systematic manner. It is a bit confusing to learn, but this flexible notation is used by most of R's more advanced functions.

To illustrate, the above could be done by (if the data frame PlantGrowth is attached)

> boxplot(weight ~ group)

What does this do? It breaks the weight variable down by values of the group factor and hands this off to the boxplot command. One should read the line weight ~ group as model weight by the variable group''. That is, break weight down by the values of group.

When there are two variables involved things are pretty straightforward. The response variable is on the left hand side and the predictor on the right:
response ~ predictor   (when two variables).
When there are more than two predictor variables things get a little confusing. In particular, the usual mathematical operators do not do what you may think. Here are a few different possibilities that will suffice for these notes.9

Suppose the variables are generically named Y, X1, X2

 formula meaning Y ~ X1 Y is modeled by X1 Y ~ X1 + X2 Y is modeled by X1 and X2 as in multiple regression Y ~ X1 * X2 Y is modeled by X1, X2 and X1*X2 (Y ~ (X1 + X2)^2) Two-way interactions. Note usual powers Y ~ X1+ I((X2^2) Y is modeled by X1 and X22 Y ~ X1 | X2 Y is modeled by X1 conditioned on X2
The exact interpretation of modeled by'' varies depending upon the usage. For the boxplot command it is different than the lm command. Also notice that usual mathematical meanings are available, but need to be included inside the I function.

### 5.5  Ways to view multivariate data

Now that we can store and access multivariate data, it is time to see the large number of ways to visualize the datasets.
n-way contingency tables
Two-way contingency tables were formed with the table command and higher order ones are no exception. If w,x,y,z are 4 variables, then the command table(x,y) creates a two-way table, table(x,y,z) creates two-way tables x versus y for each value of z. Finally x,y,z,w will do the same for each combination of values of z and w. If the variables are stored in a data frame, say df then the command table(df) will behave as above with each variable corresponding to a column in the given order.

To illustrate let's look at some relationships in the dataset Cars93 found in the MASS library.

> library(MASS);data(Cars93);attach(Cars93)
## make some categorical variables using cut
> price = cut(Price,c(0,12,20,max(Price)))
> levels(price)=c("cheap","okay","expensive"))
> mpg = cut(MPG.highway,c(0,20,30,max(MPG.highway)))
> levels(mpg) = c("gas guzzler","okay","miser"))
## now look at the relationships
> table(Type)
Type
Compact   Large Midsize   Small  Sporty     Van
16      11      22      21      14       9
> table(price,Type)
Type
price       Compact Large Midsize Small Sporty Van
cheap           3     0       0    18      1   0
okay            9     3       8     3      9   8
expensive       4     8      14     0      4   1
> table(price,Type,mpg)
, , mpg = gas guzzler

Type
price       Compact Large Midsize Small Sporty Van
cheap           0     0       0     0      0   0
okay            0     0       0     0      0   2
expensive       0     0       0     0      0   0
...

See the commands xtabs and ftable for more sophisticated usages.

barplots
Recall, barplots work on summarized data. First you need to run your data through the table command or something similar. The barplot command plots each column as a variable just like a data frame. The output of table when called with two variables uses the first variable for the row. As before barplots are stacked by default: use the argument beside=TRUE to get side-by-side barplots.


> barplot(table(price,Type),beside=T) # the price by different types
> barplot(table(Type,price),beside=T) # type by different prices

boxplots
The boxplot command is easily used for all the types of data storage. The command boxplot(x,y,z) will produce the side by side boxplots seen previously. As well, the simpler usages boxplot(df) and boxplot(y ~ x) will also work. The latter using the model formula notation.

Example: Boxplot of samples of random data
Here is an example, which will print out 10 boxplots of normal data with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. This uses the rnorm function to produce the random data.

> y=rnorm(1000)                # 1000 random numbers
> f=factor(rep(1:10,100))      # the number 1,2...10 100 times
> boxplot(y ~ f,main="Boxplot of normal random data with model notation")

Note the construction of f. It looks like 1 through 10 repeated 100 times to make a factor of the same length of x. When the model notation is used, the boxplot of the y data is done for each level of the factor f. That is, for each value of y when f is 1 and then 2 etc. until 10. Figure 18: Boxplot made with boxplot(y ~ f)

stripcharts
The side-by-side boxplots are useful for displaying similar distributions for comparison -- especially if there is a lot of data in each variable. The stripchart can do a similar thing, and is useful if there isn't too much data. It plots the actual data in a manner similar to rug which is used with histograms. Both stripchart(df) and stripchart(y ~ x) will work, but not stripchart(x,y,z).

For example, as above, we will generate 10 sets of random normal numbers. Only this time each will contain only 10 random numbers.

> x = rnorm(100)
> y = factor(rep(1:10,10))
> stripchart(x ~ y) Figure 19: A stripchart

violinplots and densityplots
The functions simple.violinplot and simple.densityplot can be used in place of side-by-side boxplots to compare different distributions.

Both use the empirical density found by the density function to illustrate a variables distribution. The density may be thought of like a histogram, only there is much less chart junk'' (extra lines) so more can effectively be placed on the same graph.

A violinplot is very similar to a boxplot, only the box is replaced by a density which is given a mirror image for clarity. A densityplot plots several densities on the same scale. Multiple histograms would look really awful, but multiple densities are manageable.

As an illustration, we show for the same dataset all three in figure 20. The density plot looks a little crowded, but you can clearly see that there are two different types of distributions being considered here. Notice, that we use the functions in an identical manner to the boxplot.

> par(mfrow=c(1,3))             # 3 graphs per page
> data(InsectSprays)            # load in the data
> boxplot(count ~ spray, data = InsectSprays, col = "lightgray")
> simple.violinplot(count ~ spray, data = InsectSprays, col = "lightgray")
> simple.densityplot(count ~ spray, data = InsectSprays) Figure 20: Compare boxplot, violinplot, densityplot for same data

scatterplots
Suppose x is a predictor and both y and z are response variables. If you want to plot them on the same graph but with a different character you can do so by setting the pch (plot character) command. Here is a simple example

> plot(x,y)                     # simple scatterplot
> points(x,z,pch="2")           # plot these with a triangle

Notice, the second command is not plot but rather points which adds to the current plot unlike plot which draws a new plot.

Sometimes you have x and y data that is also broken down by a given factor. You may wish to plot a scatterplot of the x and y data, but use different plot characters for the different levels of the factors. This is usually pretty easy to do. We just need to use the levels of the factor to give the plotting character. These levels are store internally as numbers, and we use these for the value of pch

Example: Tooth growth

The built-in R dataset ToothGrowth has data from a study that measured tooth growth as a function of amount of Vitamin C. The source of the Vitamin C came from orange juice or a vitamin supplement. The scatterplot of dosage vs. length is given below. Notice the different plotting figures for the 2 levels of the factor of which type of vitamin C.

> data("ToothGrowth")
> attach(ToothGrowth)
> plot(len ~ dose,pch=as.numeric(supp))
## click mouse to add legend.
> tmp = levels(supp)          # store for a second
> legend(locator(1),legend=tmp,pch=1:length(tmp))
> detach(ToothGrowth) Figure 21: Tooth growth as a function of vitamin C dosage

From the graph it appears that for all values of dose, the vitamin form (VC) was less effective.

Sometimes you want a to look at the distribution of x and the distribution of y and also look at their relationship with a scatterplot. (Not the case above, as the x distribution is trivial) This is easier if you can plot multiple graphs at once. This is implemented in the function simple.scatterplot (taken from the layout help page).

Example: GDP vs. CO2 emissions
The question of CO2 emissions is currently a hot'' topic due to their influence on the greenhouse effect. The dataset emissions contains data on the Gross Domestic Product and CO2 emissions for several European countries and the United States for the year 1999. A scatterplot of the data is interesting:

> data(emissions)               # or read in from dataset
> attach(emissions)
> simple.scatterplot(perCapita,CO2)
> title("GDP/capita vs. CO2 emissions 1999")
> detach(emissions) Figure 22: Per capita GDP vs. CO2 emissions

Notice, with the additional information of this scatter plot, we can see that the distribution of GDP/capita is fairly spread out unlike the distribution of the CO2 emissions which has the lone outlier.

paired scatterplots
If the 3 variables hold numeric values, then scatterplots are appropriate. The pairs command will produce scatterplots for each possible pair. It can be used as follows pairs(cbind(x,y,z)), pairs(df) or if in the factor form pairs(data.frame(split(times,week))). Of these, the easiest is if the data is in a data frame. If not, notice the use of cbind which binds the variables together as columns. (This is how data frames work.)

Figure 23 is an example using the same emissions data set. Can you spot the previous plot?

> pairs(emissions) Figure 23: Using pairs with emissions data

The pairs command has many options to customize the graphs. The help page has two nice examples.

others
The Ggobi package and accompanying software, allows you to manipulate the data in the plot and do such things as brush data in one plot and have it highlighted in another.

### 5.6  The lattice package

The add-on package lattice implements the Trellis graphics concepts of Bill Cleveland. It and the accompanying grid package allow a different way to view multivariate data than described above. As of version 1.5.0 these are recommended packages but not part of the base version of R.

Some useful graphs are easy to create and are shown below. Many other usages are possible. Both packages are well described in Volume 2/2 of the R News newsletter (http://cran.r-project.org/doc/Rnews)).

Let's use the data set Cars93 to illustrate. We assume this has been loaded, but not attached to illustrate the use of data = below.

The basic idea is that the graphic consists of a number of panels. Typically these correspond to some value of a conditioning variable. That is, a different graphic for each level of the factor used to condition, or if conditioning by a numeric variable for shingles'' which are ranges of the conditioning variable. The functions are called with the model formula notation. For univariate graphs such as histograms, the response variable, the left side, is empty. For bivariate graphs it is given. Notice below that the names for the functions are natural, yet different from the usual ones. For example, histogram is used instead of hist.
histograms
Histograms are univariate. The following command shows a histogram of the maximum price conditioned on the number of cylinders. Note the response variable is left blank.

> histogram( ~ Max.Price  | Cylinders , data = Cars93)

Boxplots
Boxplots are also univariate. Here is the same information, only summarized using boxplots. The command is bwplot.

> bwplot( ~ Max.Price | Cylinders , data = Cars93)

scatterplots
Scatterplots are available as well. The function is xyplot and not simply plot. As these are bivariate a response variable is needed. The following will plot the relationship between MPG and tank size. We expect that cars with better mileage can have smaller tanks. This type of plot allows us to check if it is the same for all types of cars.

> attach(Cars93)                 # don't need data = Cars93 now
> xyplot(MPG.highway ~ Fuel.tank.capacity | Type)
## plot with a regression line
## first define a regression line drawing function
> plot.regression = function(x,y) {
+ panel.xyplot(x,y)
+ panel.abline(lm(y~x))
+ }
> trellis.device(bg="white")    # set background to white.
> xyplot(MPG.highway ~ Fuel.tank.capacity | Type, panel = plot.regression)

This results in figure 24. Notice we can see some trends from the figure. The slope appears to become less steep as the size of the car increases. Figure 24: Example of lattice graphics: relation of m.p.g. and fuel tank size.

Notice the trellis.device command setting the background color to white. The default colors are a bit dark. The figure drawn includes a regression line. This was achieved by specifying a function to create the panel. By default, the xyplot will use the panel.xyplot function to plot a scatterplot. To get more, we defined a function of x and y that plotted a scatterplot (again with panel.xyplot) and also added a regression line using panel.abline) and the lm function. Many more possibilities are possible.

### 5.7  Problems

5.1
For the emissions dataset there is an outlier for the CO2 emissions. Find this value using identify and then redo the plot without this point.
5.2
The Simple data set chips contains data on thickness of integrated chips. There are data for two chips, each measured at 4 different places. Create a side-by-side boxplot of the thickness for each place of measurement. (There should be 8 boxplots on the same graph). Do the means look the same? The variances?
5.3
The Simple data set chicken contains weights of chickens who are given 1 of 3 different food rations. Create a boxplot of all 3 rations. Does there appear to be a difference in mean?
5.4
The Simple data set WeightData contains information on weights for children aged 0 to 144 months. Make a side-by-side boxplot of the weights broken down by age in years. What kind of trends do you see? (The variable age is in months. To convert to years can be done using cut as follows

> age.yr = cut(age,seq(0,144,by=12),labels=0:11)

assuming the dataset has been attached.)
5.5
The Simple data set carbon contains carbon monoxide levels at 3 different industrial sites. The data has two variables: a carbon monoxide reading, and a factor variable to keep track of the site. Create side-by-side boxplots of the monoxide levels for each site. Does there appear to be a difference? How so?
5.6
For the data set babies make a pairs plot (pairs(babies)) to investigate the relationships between the variables. Which variables seem to have a linear relationship? For the variables for birthweight and gestation make a scatter plot using different plotting characters (pch) depending on the level of the factor smoke.   