A sample R session Previous Up Next

18  A sample R session

18.1  A sample session involving regression

For illustrative purposes, a sample R session may look like the following. The graphs are not presented to save space and to encourage the reader to try the problems themself.
Assignment: Explore mtcars.
Here are some things to do:
Start R.
First we need to start R. Under Windows this involves finding the icon and clicking it. Wait a few seconds and the R application takes over. If you are at a UNIX command prompt, then typing R will start the R program. If you are using XEmacs and ESS then you start XEmacs and then enter the command M-x R. (That is Alt and x at the same time, and then R and then enter. Other methods may be applicable to your case.
Load the dataset mtcars.
This dataset is built-in to R. To access it, we need to tell R we want it. Here is how to do so, and how to find out the names of the variables. Use ?mtcars to read the documentation on the data set.

> data(mtcars)
> names(mtcars)
 [1] "mpg"  "cyl"  "disp" "hp"   "drat" "wt"   "qsec" "vs"   "am"   "gear"
[11] "carb"
  
Access the data.
The data is in a data frame. This makes it easy to access the data. As a summary, we could access the ``miles per gallon data'' (mpg) lots of ways. Here are a few: Using $ as with mtcars$mpg; as a list element as in mtcars[['mpg']]; or as the first column of data using mtcars[,1]. However, the preferred method is to attach the dataset to your environment. Then the data is directly accessible as this illustrates

> mpg                           # not currently visible
Error: Object "mpg" not found
> attach(mtcars)                # attach the mtcars names
> mpg                           # now it is visible
 [1] 21.0 21.0 22.8 21.4 18.7 18.1 14.3 24.4 22.8 19.2 17.8 16.4 17.3 15.2 10.4
[16] 10.4 14.7 32.4 30.4 33.9 21.5 15.5 15.2 13.3 19.2 27.3 26.0 30.4 15.8 19.7
[31] 15.0 21.4
  
Categorical Data.
The value of cylinder is categorical. We can use table to summarize, and barplot to view the values. Here is how

> table(cyl)
cyl
 4  6  8 
11  7 14 
> barplot(cyl)                  # not what you want
> barplot(table(cyl))
  
If you do so, you will see that for this data 8 cylinder cars are more common. (This is 1974 car data. Read more with the help command: help(mtcars) or ?mtcars.)
Numerical Data.
The miles per gallon is numeric. What is the general shape of the distribution? We can view this with a stem and leaf chart, a histogram, or a boxplot. Here are commands to do so

> stem(mpg)

  The decimal point is at the |

  10 | 44
  12 | 3
  14 | 3702258
  16 | 438
  18 | 17227
  20 | 00445
  22 | 88
  24 | 4
  26 | 03
  28 | 
  30 | 44
  32 | 49

> hist(mpg)
> boxplot(mpg)    
  
From the graphs (in particular the histogram) we can see the miles per gallon are pretty low. What are the summary statistics including the mean? (This stem graph is a bit confusing. 33.9, the max value, reads like 32.9. Using a different scale is better as in stem(mpg,scale=3).)

> mean(mpg)
[1] 20.09062
> mean(mpg,trim=.1)             # trim off 10 percent from top, bottom
[1] 19.69615                    # for a more resistant measure
> summary(mpg)
   Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max. 
  10.40   15.43   19.20   20.09   22.80   33.90 
  
So half of the cars get 19.20 miles per gallon or less. What is the variability or spread? There are several ways to measure this: the standard deviation or the IQR or mad (the median absolute deviation). Here are all three

> sd(mpg)
[1] 6.026948
> IQR(mpg)
[1] 7.375
> mad(mpg)
[1] 5.41149
  
They are all different, but measure approximately the same thing -- spread.
Subsets of the data.
What about the average mpg for cars that have just 4 cylinders? This can be answered with the mean function as well, but first we need a subset of the mpg vector corresponding to just the 4 cylinder cars. There is an easy way to do so.

> mpg[cyl == 4]
 [1] 22.8 24.4 22.8 32.4 30.4 33.9 21.5 27.3 26.0 30.4 21.4
> mean(mpg[cyl == 4])
[1] 26.66364
  
Read this like a sentence -- ``the miles per gallon of the cars with cylinders equal to 4''. Just remember ``equals'' is == and not simply =, and functions use parentheses while accessing data uses square brackets..
Bivariate relationships.
The univariate data on miles per gallon is interesting, but of course we expect there to be some relationship with the size of the engine. The engine size is stored in various ways: with the cylinder size, or the horsepower or even the displacement. Let's view it two ways. First, cylinder size is a discrete variable with just a few values, a scatterplot will produce an interesting graph

> plot(cyl,mpg)
  
We see a decreasing trend as the number of cylinders increases, and lots of variation between the different cars. We might be tempted to fit a regression line. To do so is easy with the command simple.lm which is a convenient front end to the lm command. (You need to have loaded the Simple package prior to this.)

  > simple.lm(cyl,mpg)

Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)

Coefficients:
(Intercept)            x  
     37.885       -2.876    
  
Which says the slope of the line is -2.876 which in practical terms means if you step up to the next larger sized engine, your m.p.g. drops by 5.752 on average.

What are the means for each cylinder size? We did this above for 4 cylinders. If we wanted do this for the 6 and 8 cylinder cars we could simply replace the 4 in the line above with 6 or 8. If you wanted a fancy way to do so, you can use tapply which will apply a function (the mean) to a vector broken down by a factor:

> tapply(mpg,cyl,mean)
       4        6        8 
26.66364 19.74286 15.10000 
  
Next, lets investigate the relationship between the numeric variable horsepower and miles per gallon. The same commands as above will work, but the scatterplot will look different as horsepower is essentially a continuous variable.

> simple.lm(hp,mpg)

Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)

Coefficients:
(Intercept)            x  
   30.09886     -0.06823  
  
The fit doesn't look quite as good. We can test this with the correlation function cor

> cor(hp,mpg)
[1] -0.7761684
> cor(cyl,mpg)
[1] -0.852162
This is the Pearson correlation coefficient, R. Squaring it gives R2.

> cor(hp,mpg)^2
[1] 0.6024373
> cor(cyl,mpg)^2
[1] 0.72618
The usual interpretation is that 72% of the variation is explained by the linear relationship for the relationship between the number of cylinders and the miles per gallon.

We can view all three variables together by using different plotting symbols based on the number of cylinders. The argument pch controls this as in

> plot(hp,mpg,pch=cyl)
You can add a legend with the legend command to tell the reader what you did.

> legend(250,30,pch=c(4,6,8),
+ legend=c("4 cylinders","6 cylinders","8 cylinders"))  
(Note the + indicates a continuation line.)

Testing the regression assumptions.
In order to make statistical inferences about the regression line, we need to ensure that the assumptions behind the statistical model are appropriate. In this case, we want to check that the residuals have no trends, and are normallu distributed. We can do so graphically once we get our hands on the residuals. These are available through the resid method for the result of an lm usage.

> lm.res = simple.lm(hp,mpg)
> lm.resids = resid(lm.res)     # the residuals as a vector 
> plot(lm.resids)               # look for change in spread    
> hist(lm.resids)               # is data bell shaped?
> qqnorm(lm.resids)             # is data on straight line?
  
From the first plot we see that the assumptions are suspicious as the residuals are basically negative for a while and then they are mostly positive. This is an indication that the straight line model is not a good one.
Clean up.
There is certainly more to do with this, but not here. Let's take a break. When leaving an example, you should detach any data frames. As well, we will quit our R session. Notice you will be prompted to save your session. If you choose yes, then the next time you start R in this directory, your session (variables, functions etc.) will be restored.

> detach()                      # clear up namespace
> q()                           # Notice the parentheses!
  

18.2  t-tests

The t-tests are the standard test for making statistical inferences about the center of a dataset.
Assignment: Explore chickwts using t-tests.
Start up.
We start up R as before. If you started in the same directory, your previous work has been saved. How can you tell? Try the ls() command to see what is available.
Attach the data set.
First we load in the data and attach the data set

> data(chickwts)
> attach(chickwts)
> names(chickwts)
[1] "weight" "feed"      
    
EDA
Let's see what we have. The data is stored in two columns. The weight and the level of the factor feed is given for each chick. A boxplot is a good place to look. For data presented this way, the goal is to make a separate boxplot for each level of the factor feed. This is done using the model formula notation of R.

> boxplot(weight ~ feed)  
    
We see that ``casein'' appears to be better than the others. As a naive check, we can test its mean against the mean weight.

> our.mu = mean(weight)
> just.casein = weight[feed == 'casein']
> t.test(just.casein,mu = our.mu)

One Sample t-test

data:  just.casein 
t = 3.348, df = 11, p-value = 0.006501 
alternative hypothesis: true mean is not equal to 261.3099 
95 percent confidence interval:
 282.6440 364.5226 
sample estimates:
mean of x 
 323.5833 
    
The low p-value of 0.006501 indicates that the mean weight for the chicks fed 'casein' is more than the average weight.

The 'sunflower' feed also looks higher. Is it similar to the 'casein' feed? A two-sample t-test will tell us

> t.test(weight[feed == 'casein'],weight[feed == 'sunflower'])

Welch Two Sample t-test

data:  weight[feed == "casein"] and weight[feed == "sunflower"] 
t = -0.2285, df = 20.502, p-value = 0.8215 
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 
95 percent confidence interval:
 -53.94204  43.27538 
sample estimates:
mean of x mean of y 
 323.5833  328.9167 
    
Notice the p-value now is 0.8215 which indicates that the null hypothesis should be accepted. That is, there is no indication that the mean weights are not the same.

The feeds 'linseed' and 'soybean' appear to be the same, and have the same spread. We can test for the equivalence of the mean, and in addition use the pooled estimate for the standard deviation. This is done as follows using var.equal=TRUE

> t.test(weight[feed == 'linseed'],weight[feed == 'soybean'],
+ var.equal=TRUE)

Two Sample t-test

data:  weight[feed == "linseed"] and weight[feed == "soybean"] 
t = -1.3208, df = 24, p-value = 0.1990 
alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 
95 percent confidence interval:
 -70.92996  15.57282 
sample estimates:
mean of x mean of y 
 218.7500  246.4286 
    
The null hypothesis of equal means is accepted as the p-value is not too small.
Close up.
Again, lets close things down just for practice.

> detach()                      # clear up namespace
> q()                           # Notice the parentheses!
  

18.3  A simulation example

The t-statistic for a data sets X1,X2,...,Xn is
t =
--
X
 
-
s/ ( n )
1/2
 
 
where X-- is the sample mean and s is the sample standard deviation. If the Xi's are normal, the distribution is the t-distribution. What if the Xi are not normal?
Assignment: How robust is the distribution of t to changes in the distribution of Xi?
This is the job of simulation. We use the computer to generate random data and investigate the results. Suppose our R session is already running and just want to get to work.

First, let's define a useful function to create the t statistic for a data set.

> make.t = function(x,mu) (mean(x)-mu)/( sqrt(var(x)/length(x)))
Now, when we want to make the t-statistic we simply use this function.

> mu = 1;x=rnorm(100,mu,1)
> make.t(x,mu)
[1] -1.552077
That shows the t statistic for one random sample of size 100 from the normal distribution with mean 1 and standard deviation 1.

We need to use a different distribution, and create lots of random samples so that we can investigate the distribution of the t statistic. Here is how to create samples when the Xi are exponential

> mu = 10;x=rexp(100,1/mu);make.t(x,mu)
[1] 1.737937
Now, we need to create lots of such samples and store them somewhere. We use a for loop, but first we define a variable to store our data

> results = c()                    # initialize the results vector
> for (i in 1:200) results[i] = make.t(rexp(100,1/mu),mu)
That's it. Our numbers are now stored in the variable results. We could have spread this out over a few lines, but instead we combined a few functions together. Now we can view the distribution using graphical tools such as histograms, boxplots and probability plots.

> hist(res)                     # histogram looks bell shaped
> boxplot(res)                  # symmetric, not long-tailed
> qqnorm(res)                   # looks normal
When n=100, the data looks approximately normal. Which is good as the t-distribution does too.

What about if n is small? Then the t-distribution has n-1 degrees of freedom and is long-tailed. Will this change things? Let's see with n=8.

> for (i in 1:200) res[i] = make.t(rexp(8,1/mu),mu)  
> hist(res)                     # histogram is not bell shaped
> boxplot(res)                  # asymmetric, long-tailed
> qqnorm(res)                   # not close to $t$ or normal.
We see a marked departure from a symmetric distribution. We conclude that the t is not this robust.

So, if the underlying distribution is skewed and n is small, the t distribution is not robust, what about if the underlying distribution is symmetric, but long-tailed? Let's think of a random distribution that is like this? Hmmm, how about the t distribution with a few degrees of freedom? Let's see. We will look at the shape of the t-statistic with n=8 (7 degrees of freedom) when the underlying distribution is the t-distribution with 5 degrees of freedom.

> for (i in 1:200) res[i] = make.t(rt(8,5),0)  
> hist(res)                     # histogram is bell shaped
> boxplot(res)                  # symmetric, long-tailed
> qqnorm(res)                   # not close to  normal.
> qqplot(res,rt(200,7)          # close to t with 7 degrees of freedom
We see a symmetric, long-tailed distribution which is not normal, but is close to the t-distribution with 7 degrees of freedom. We conclude that the t-statistic is robust to this amount of change in the tails of the underlying population distribution.



Copyright © John Verzani, 2001-2. All rights reserved.

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